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2017年职称英语考试综合A类语法复习资料(7)

  3、以下名词单复数同形:

  means(手段) headquarters(司令部)

  works(工厂) species(物种)

  aircraft(飞机) Chinese(中国人)

  sheep(羊) fish(鱼)

  中国的计量单位:li(里), yuan(元), mu(亩)等

  实例:

  Every means has been tried out, but without satisfactory results. (每个方法都试过了,但结果不令人满意。)

  4、形式上是复数的学科名称,如physics , statistics, dynamics 作单数看待;时间、距离、钞票、重量等复数,可以看作一个整体作单数处理,如:Two days is not enough for me to finish the task. (要我完成此项任务两天是不够的。)

  5、名词做另一名词的修饰语:

  一般用单数形式,如:a college student中的college 为单数形式。

  注意:

  (1) 以下名词做另一名词修饰语时要用复数形式:sport → a sportsman (运动员)/ sale → a sales department(销售部) / savings → a savings account (储蓄存款)/ communication → a communications satellite (通讯卫星) / greeting → a greetings cable(慰问电)

  (2) 不规则名词修饰另一名词时数的变化:a woman doctor (一个女医生) → two women doctors (两个女医生) / the Chinese women's volleyball team (中国女排) / a children hospital (儿童医院)

  6、family(家庭), group(小组), police(警察),committee(委员会), team(组), box(盒), audience(观众)等词,可以是单数,也可以是复数,关键要看题目所给的提示,例如:

  The whole box of matches _____ wet; I couldn't light a simple one

  A. was

  B. is

  C. were

  D. are

  解题思路:这道题如果没有后半句I couldn't light a simple one,是没办法解答的。这句话提示了两点:

  (1)时态为"过去时",故B、D已不可能了;

  (2)"a simple one"说明是指盒子内的一根根火柴,故答案为C.试想,如果我们把后半句改为 "I had to throw it away", 那么正确答案应是A.

  所以,看清题目的提示对于解题是非常重要的。

  7、注意以下表达方式中名词的复数形式

  to be / make friends with(友好 / 交朋友)

  to change places with (交换位置)

  to make preparations for(为…作准备)

  to give regards to(向…问好)

  to make matters worse(把事情弄糟)

  to hurt feelings(伤害感情)

  to be all smiles(满脸堆笑)

  to take sides (偏袒某方)

  to have words with(吵架)

  to burst into tears (突然哭了)

  8、量词的使用:

  由于英语中名词分可数与不可数,量词的使用也有区别:

  修饰可数名词

  (a) few / fewer / fewest

  many / more / most

  a great (good) many

  many a

  a number of

  the number of

  既可修饰可数名词 也可修饰不可数名词

  a lot of / lots of

  plenty of (time, money, people)

  修饰不可数名词

  (a) little / less / least

  much / more / most

  a great (good) deal of

  an amount of / amounts of

  the amount of

  量词使用中应注意的几个问题:

  1) 分清可数名词和不可数名词是前提;

  2) 不要把量词的形式搞混淆了:下面哪个表达形式是对的?

  A. A lot students have come back from the summer holiday.

  B. A few of the students have come back from the summer holiday.

  C. A great many of students have come back from the summer holiday.

  D. Many a student has have come back from the summer holiday.

  E. The number of students have come back from the summer holiday.

  F. A number of students have come back from the summer holiday.

  以上六个表达方式中只有F 是对的。为什么?

  A. a lot students → a lot of students

  B. a few of the students → a few students

  C. a great many of students → a great many students

  D. Many a student has come back from the summer holiday.

  E. The number of 表示数目,如:The number of the students in our class is 50.

  A number of 表示"一些","不少",认真对比一下,看出问题来了吗?

  问多少钱、多少重量时用:How much…?问距离时用:How far is it from…to…?

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