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2016年职称英语真题_卫生类B级试题答案_补全短文

  补全短文

  What Is a Dream?

  For centuries, people have wondered about the strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that this nighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others,however, think that dreams are an important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us about a person's mind and emotions.

  Before modern times, many people thought that dreams contained messages from God. (46)____

  The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud1,was probably the first person to study dreams scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud wrote that dreams are an expression of a person's wishes. He believed that dreams allow people to express the feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.

  The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2 was once a student of Freud's. Jung,however,had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose of a dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer. (47)___For example, people who dream about falling may learn that they have too high an opinion of themselves. On the other hand, people who dream about being heroes may learn that they think too little of themselves.

  Modern-day psychologists continue to develop theories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff from the University of California, Santa Cruz,believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person's daily life, thoughts, and behavior. (48)____.

  Domhoff believes that there is a connection between dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as much as adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time to develop.

  He has also found a link between dreams and gender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. (49)___This is not true of women's dreams.3 Domhoff found this gender difference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, including both modern and traditional ones.

  Can dreams help us understand ourselves? Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways. (50)____The dream may have meaning, but it does not mean that some terrible event will actually take place. It's important to remember that the world of dreams is not the real world.

  A. It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

  B. However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.

  C. A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.

  D. He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.

  E. Men and women are dreamed about different things.

  F. For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.

  词汇:

  psychologist 心理学家 psychiatrist 精神病学家

  Austrian 奥地利的 gender 性别

  注释:

  1.Sigmund Freud西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(1856—1939),犹太人,奥地利精神病医生及精神分析学家。精神分析学派的创始人。他认为被压抑的欲望绝大部分是属于性的,性的扰乱是精神病的根本原因。著有《性学三论》《梦的释义》《图腾与禁忌》《日常生活的心理病理学》《精神分析引论》《精神分析引论新编》等。

  2.Carl Jung:卡尔·荣格,瑞士著名精神分析专家,分析心理学的创始人。

  3.For example,the people in men's dreams are often other men,and the dreams often involve fighting.This is not true of women's dreams.例如,在男性梦境中出现的通常是其他男性而且常与打斗有关,而女性的梦境则不是这样。

  译文:梦是什么

  几百年来,人们都对他们梦到的奇异的事情感到疑惑。一些心理学家认为,这种大脑的夜间活动并没有特殊含义,另一些人则认为,梦是生命重要的一部分。实际上,许多专家认为,梦能揭示人的心理和情感活动。

  近代以前,很多人认为梦传递的是上帝的信息。直到20世纪,人们才开始从科学的角度研究梦。

  奥地利心理学家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德或许是第一个用科学的方法研究梦的人。在他的著作《 梦的解析》(1900) 中,弗洛伊德写道,梦是一个人愿望的表达。他认为梦打开了一扇窗,让人们得以表达在生活中不敢表达的情感、思想和恐惧。

  瑞士精神病学家卡尔 ·荣格曾是弗洛伊德的学生,但他对梦的看法与弗洛伊德不同,他认为,梦的作用是给做梦的人传递一种信息,而人们通过自己的梦,可以对自己有一个更深刻的了解。比如,如果一个人梦到从高处坠落,那么他应该反思自己是不是自视过高。反过来,如果梦中自己成了英雄,应该想想平时可能太看低自己了。

  现代心理学家还在继续发展关于梦的理论,来自位于圣克鲁兹的加利福尼亚大学的威廉· 多姆霍夫就是其中一位。他认为,梦境和一个人的日常生活、思想和行为都紧密相关,比方说,一个罪犯就可能梦到犯罪。

  多姆霍夫还认为,梦和年龄也有关系。他的研究表明,孩子不像成人那么多梦。他认为,做梦也是一项心理机能,也随着年龄增长而发展。

  多姆霍夫还发现梦和性别之间的关系。通过研究。他发现男性和女性的梦境常常是不同的。例如,在男性梦境中出现的通常是其他男性,而且常与打斗有关,而女性的梦境则不是这样。多姆霍夫研究了全世界来自11种不同文化的古今案例,得出了上述结论。

  梦能帮助我们更好地了解自己吗?心理学家还在尝试通过不同方式来解答这个问题,不过,有一件事他们是意见一致的:如果你梦到有不好的事要发生,不要慌张。梦确实有含义,但也不意味着你梦到的事真的会发生。要记住,梦中的世界并不是真实的世界。

  参考答案

  补全短文:ADCFB

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